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非谓语动词与从句结构转换


来源:网络转载 发布时间:2015-09-09 17:03:38 查看次数:
内容提要:非谓语动词作句子成分时与相应的从句有着千丝万缕的联系,它们之间可以有条件的进行相互转换。

    非谓语动词与从句间的相互关系及转换:英语中的非谓语动词是整个英语语法当中非常重要的部分,也是英语学习的一个难点。非谓语动词作句子成分时与相应的从句有着千丝万缕的联系,它们之间可以有条件的进行相互转换。
    一、非谓语动词与从旬的相互关系
(一)不定式和分词作定语相当于定语从句
不定式通常位于被修饰名词后。与该名词构成逻辑上的动宾关系。如果不定式与所修饰名词在意思上是被动且逻辑上的主语不出现时,要用不定式的被动式,与所修饰名词构成逻辑上的主谓关系。分词作定语时,单个分词置于名词之前,分词短语置于名词之后,与名词构成主谓关系或被动主谓关系。定语从句和不定式、分词作定语只是两种不同的表达方式,本质是相同的。
例如:I have many letters to type.(动宾关系)
→I have many letters which I should type.
I have many letters to be typed.(被动主谓关系)
→I havemanyletterswhich areto be typed by other.
The standing people shouted at the dean.(主谓关系)
(二)不定式和分词作状语相当于状语从句
1.不定式多作目的状语和结果状语.故可以转化为相应的目的状语从句和结果状语从句。
例如:Mother got up early to catch the early bus.(目的状语)
→Mother got叩early 80 as to(i.order to)catch the early bus.
→Mother got up early 80 that(in order that)she migllt catchthe early bus.
【注意】80 as to和80 that不可放在句首。
She is too young to join the army.(结果状语)
She is 80 young tllat she cannot ioin the army.
2.分词作状语可以表示时间、原因、条件、方式和让步等,相当于相应状语的从句。如果分词的逻辑主语与主句主语一致,则用现在分词;如果分词的逻辑主语与主句是被动关系且主语一致时,则用过去分词。分词作状语时,如果其带有逻辑上的主语,称为分词的独立主格结构。分词的逻辑主语与句子的主语无语法联系。
例如:Seeing those pictures.he couldn't help thinking of the unforgettable days in New York.(时间状语)
→When he saw those pictures.he eouldn"t help thinking of the unforgettable days in New Y0rk.
二、非谓语动词与从旬的相互转换
(一)不定式与从句之间的转换
1.不定式作主语可转换成主语从句。
例如:When and where(for.8)to hold the meeting is unknown yet.
→When and where We'will hold the meeting is unknoen yet.
2.不定式作宾语或宾补可转换成宾语从句。
例如:I don't know what to do with the matter.
→I don't know what I should do with the matter.
3.不定式作表语可转换成表语从句。
例如:IVlywish is to become a pilot after graduation.
→My wish is that I can become a pilot after graduation.
4.不定式作定语可转换成定语从旬。
例如:The meeting to be held tomolTow is ofgreat importance.
→The meeting that/which will be held is ofgreat importance.
5.不定式作且的、结果、原因状语可转换成相应的状语从句。
例如:They Started off early in order to(so as to)arrive in time.
→They started of early in order that(so that)they could arrive in time.
(二)动名词与从句之间的转换
1.动名词作主语可转换成that引导的主语从句。
例如:Tom’s knowing English helps him in learning French.
→That Tom knowsEnglish help him inlearningFrench.
2.动名词作宾语可转换成that引导的宾语从句。
例如:Il'elnember having paid himforhiswork.
→I rememberthatI have paid himfor hiswork.
3.动名词作表语可转换成that引导的表语从句。
例如:Our worry is your depending too much on him.
→Our worry is that you depend too much on him.
(三) 1分词与从句之间的转换
1.分词作定语可转换成that,who,which引导的定语从句。
例如:The man talking to my teacher is my father.
→The man who/that is talking to my teacher is my father.
2.分词作状语可转换成相应的状语从句。
例如:Wllile waiting for the bus-I caught sight ofher.
→whlile I was waiting for the bus.I caught sight ofher.
3.分词作宾补可转换成宾语从句。
例如:I found him waiting for a bus at the station.
→I found that he was waiting for a bus at the station.
4.分词在句中作伴随或结果状语时。相当于一个并列句。也可和 tII结构转换。
例如:He died,leaving his daughter much money.
→He died,and he)left his daughter much money.
三、分词的独立主格结构与从句的相互转换
(一)独立主格结构转换为从句
1.表示时间的独立主格结构可转换为时间状语从旬。
例如:The shower being over,we continued our joumey.
→When the shower was over.we continued our journey.
2.表示理由的独立主格结构可转换为原因状语从句。
例如:Au the tickets having been sold out,they went away disappointed .
→As all the tickets had been sold out,they went away disanppo inted .
3.表示条件的独立主格结构可转换为条件状语从句。
例如:All things considered,her paper is better than yours.
→If all things are considered.her paper is better than yours.
4.表示伴随状态的独立主格结构可转换为并列句或两个独立的句子。
例如:He went to the front door.his students following him.(=He went to the front door,folowed by his students.)
→He went to the front door.an d his students followed
him.
(二)从句转换为分词的独立主格结构
1.从句变为分词的独立主格结构时,要去掉连词,保留自己的主语。然后把从句的谓语变换为分词结构。试比较下面的句子。
例如:Mother being ill in bed.I Can't go to scho1.
→As Mother is iu in bed.I can 't go to schoo1.
2.表示伴随状态的独立主格结构有时可在其前面加用tll或without.
例如:Hewent away,and not awordwas spoken.
→He went away.without a word spoken.
3.当分词的独立主格结构的含义表示“一般人”,如we,one。you时。主语可以省略。
例如:Judging from his face.he must be ill.
→If we judge from his face,he must be ill.
来源:能飞英语网(http://www.langfly.com)[详细地址]:http://www.langfly.com/a/20110120/221225.shtml
英语中的非谓语动词是整个英语语法当中非常重要的部分,也是学生学习的一个难点。其实,我们可以从从句的角度来解释非谓语动词,弄清非谓语动词与从句的关系。
I. v-ing 形式与从句之间的转换
1. v-ing形式作主语可换成that引导的主语从句
Tom's knowing English helps him in learning French. That _________ helps him in learning English.
Her being out of work was unexpected. _____________________ was unexpected.
2. v-ing形式作宾语或宾补可换成that引导的宾语从句
I remember having paid him for his work.   I remember that___________________.
He suggests our making better use of the school library.   He suggests _________________________.
3. v-ing形式作表语可换成that引导的表语从句
Our worry is your depending too much on him.   Our worry is that ___________________
The question is many people's being trapped in the fire.   The question is _______________________.
4. v-ing形式作定语可换成that, who, which引导的定语从句
We will study in the house facing south.   We will study in the house that / which____________
The man talking to my teacher is my father.   The man __________________ is my father.
5. v-ing形式作状语可换成相应状语从句
On arriving there, I will telephone you.   ____________________, I will telephone you.
While waiting for the bus, I caught sight of her.   __________________, I caught sight of her.
另外,v-ing形式在句中表伴随或作结果状语,相当于一个并列句,也可和with结构转换。
He died, leaving his daughter much money.   He died, and (he) __________________.
II. V-ed形式与从句之间的转换
1. v-ed形式作定语可换成定语从句
The question discussed yesterday is very important.   The question that / which ______is very important.
The boy lost in thought is my brother.   The boy _______________is my brother.
2. v-ed形式作宾补可换成宾语从句
I found the room broken into and a lot of things stolen.   I found (that) ___________ and ____________
3. v-ed形式作状语可换成状语从句
(If) heated, water will turn into steam.  ________________, water will turn into steam.
Don't speak until spoken to.   Don't speak _____________________
III. to do形式与从句的转换
1. to do形式作主语可转换成主语从句
When and where (for us) to hold the meeting is unknown yet. When and where _________ is unknown yet.
They seemed to be eating something cooked on the fire.   It seemed ______________________
2. to do形式作宾语或宾补可换成宾语从句
I don't know what to do with the matter.   I don't know ______________
I warned him not to drive the car after drinking.   I warned _______________________.
3. to do形式作表语可换成表语从句
My wish is to become a pilot after graduation.   My wish is ________________________.
My only worry was for her not to have enough experience in it.  My only worry was________________
4. to do形式作定语可换成定语从句
The meeting to be held tomorrow is of great importance.   The meeting ________ is of great importance.
He was the first to arrive and the last to leave.   He was the first__________ and the last__________
5. to do形式作目的、结果、原因状语可转换成相应的状语从句
They started off early in order / so as to arrive in time.   They started off early____________________
She was so excited as not to go to sleep. She was too excited to go to sleep. She was___ excited ________

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