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副词系统归纳学习专题


来源:网络转载 发布时间:2015-11-13 09:36:23 查看次数:
内容提要:副词是一个可以修饰 a.动词,b.形容词,c.另一副词,d.介词,e.连词,或 f.整个句子的词。(黑体词为被修饰词)

一、副词的一般特点

1、 副词是一个可以修饰 a.动词,b.形容词,c.另一副词,d.介词,e.连词,或 f.整个句子的词。

aHe arrived lateHe studies hard

bHe is very honestHe has a rather difficult problem

cHe arrived too lateHe studies very hard

dHe started long after meShe sat just behind John

eHe arrived long after I didShe fell ill just because she worked too hard

fLuckily he succeededEconomicallyAfrica is underdeveloped

2、副词放在以下位置:a.放在所修饰词前面,b.紧跟所修饰词,c.放在最前头,d.放在最后头:

aIt is fairly easyHe often came here

bJohn will come soonWait here please

cYesterday Johns father suddenly came here

dHe went to a village far away from the city yesterday

3、 根据词义,副词可以分为下面几类:

a.时间副词,b.地点副词,c.方式副词,

d.程度副词,及 e.(不)肯定副词:

aHe did yesterdayHe was frequently failed

bJohn sleeps hereMary went abroadLet us climb up

cHe slept soundlyHe ran fastWe waited patiently

dHe is extremely cruelJohn walked too fast

eCertainly he will returnHe will probably let me know

4、副词和形容词一样可有等级。a.单音节词,以加-er-est的方式构成比较级及最高级,b.以-ly结尾的副词,以加moremost的方式构成比较级和最高级。c.还有少数不规则的比较形式:

原级     比较级    最高级

____     ____      ____

near     nearer    nearest

fast     faster     fastest

quickly  more quickly most quickly

steadily more steadily most steadily

cleverly more cleverly most cleverly

ill/bad/badly worse worst

well  better   best

far   farther  farthest

much  more     most

little less    least

二、副词的普通用法

1.几乎所有副词可以用来修饰动词:

He died here.(地点)

He died yesterday.(时间)

He died suddenly(方式)

He nearly(程度)died

He has probably(肯定性)died

2.程度副词可用来修饰下面的词:

a.形容词,b.另一副词,c.间或修饰动词:

aHe is rather sillyThe house is very darkHe has an extremely difficult problem

bHe ran much faster than IHe speaks English fluently enoughHe works too hard

cHe loves her very muchI little know that she is his sister

方式副词也可用来表示程度,修饰形容词(d)或副词(e):

dHe is dreadfully sad

Mary is remarkably simple

She is lamentably poor

He is comfortably warm

eHe ran tolerably fast

He writes immeasurably better than I

We have waited terribly long

He read incredibly fast

注:出于语音上的考虑,副词及所修饰的副词不能同时都以-ly结尾,避免说 He works terribly slowly.(但可说 Hes terribly slow.)

3.表示a.程度,b.时间,或c.地点的副词可以用来修饰介词:

a He is much against my proposal

He failed entirely through his own fault

He arrived exactly at five oclock

he sat just behind me

b He came soon after noon

He left long before the war

c He lives far beyond that pagoda

He stood close beside me

It is nearor hardby the bridge

4.表示a.程度,或b.时间的副词可用来修饰连词:

aHe fell ill partly because he worked too hard

He met her exactly when she was angry

bHe got married long before he was graduated

He died soon after he got sick

5.表示a.肯定程度,及b.方式的副词可以用来修饰整个句子:

aHe will surely succeed

Surely he will succeed

He will probably come

We must positively get the license

YesI canNoI cant

bHappilyhe was pardoned

Luckilyhe has tried his best and succeeded

B.副词的特殊用法

6.少数副词可用来修饰名词。在这样用时,它们通常放在所修饰名词的前面:

He is quite a hero=quite heroic).

He is regarded as rather a fool=rather foolish).

He is almost a child=almost childish).

Only Wang studied English last year.(No other students studied.)

Wang studied only English last year.(not any other language

Evenalmost的作用和only相同)

7.有些副词(多为地点副词)在修饰名词时,可以看作一个压缩的形容词从句(即定语从句):

He waited at the bridge there=that lay there).

His life abroad=which was spent abroadwas hard

The then king=king that reigned thenwas cruel

The above statement is false

The up train=train that goes upcomes at seven

He went to a far country

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