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语法专题:定语从句


来源:本站整理 发布时间:2015-11-28 11:45:07 查看次数:
内容提要:在复合句中充当定语的从句叫定语从句

在复合句中充当定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句的作用相当于形容词,用来修饰主句中的某一名词或代词或整个主句,所以,也称作形容词性从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。在先行词和定语从句之间起连接作用的词叫关系词。关系词有关系代词和关系副词两种。

一、关系代词引导的定语从句

引导定语从句的关系代词主要有who, whom, whose, which, that等。它们分别代替前面的先行词,并在定语从句中作主语、宾语或定语。

A.who

指人,在定语从句中作主语。

What was the name of the man who lent you the money?

借钱给你的那人叫什么名字?(定语从句修饰先行词the man)

He who laughs last laughs best.

谁笑到最后谁笑得最好。(定语从句修饰先行词he)

The chairman of the meeting, who spoke first, sat on my right.

会议主席坐在我右边,他先发言。(定语从句修饰先行词the chairman)

B.whom

指人,在定语从句中做宾语。在口语或非正式文体中,whom可省略或可用who来代替,但在介词后面以及在非限制性定语从句中只能用whom。

There are some people (whom /who)we like and others (whom/who) we dislike.

有些人我们是喜欢的,有些人则是我们讨厌的。(定语从句分别修饰先行词people, others)

The people whom/who I work with are all friendly.

和我一起工作的人都很友好。(定语从句修饰先行词the people)

Mr.Carter, whom I spoke to on the phone last night, is very interested in or plan.

昨晚我在电话里和卡特先生交谈过,他对我们的计划很感兴趣。(非限制性定语从句中不能用who代替whom)

Two men, neither of whom I had ever seen before, came into my office.

两个人来到我的办公室,我以前从未见过他们。(在介词后面不用who)

C.whose

通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语,后面要紧跟被修饰的名词。

There are some people whose faces you can nevr forget.

有些人,他们的脸你永远难以忘怀。(定语从句修饰先行词people)

I saw some trees whose leaves were black because of the polluted air.

我看见一些树的树叶由于空气污染而发黑。(定语从句修饰行词trees)

D.which

1.指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语。做宾语时常可省略。

English is a language which is easy to learn.

英语是一门容易学的语言。(which在定语从句中作主语,不能省略)

This is a folk song which is now very popular.

这是目前非常流行的一首民谣(which在定语从句中作主语,不能省略)

The river which flows through London is the Thames.

流经伦敦的河叫泰晤士河。(which在定语从句中作主语,不能省略)

The children like cookies (which) my wife makes.

孩子们喜欢我夫人做的饼干。(关系代词which作makes的宾语,可以省略)

2.which引导的非限制性定语从句可以修饰前面的整个主句,相当于and this。

Jim passed his driving test, which surprised everybody.

吉姆通过了驾驶考试,这使大家都感到惊讶。(定语从句修饰的是整个主句,而不是the driving test)

Sheila couldn't come to the party, which was a pity.

希拉不能来参加聚会,真遗憾。(定语从句修饰的是整个主句,而不是the party)

3.which在非限制性定语从句中有时也可以作定语。

John stayed here for a week, during which time we visited the West Lake
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