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浅谈新课标下英语教学法的实践与探索


来源:陈力 王芳 发布时间:2009-10-12 10:59:00 查看次数:

内容提要:高中英语教学交流网 http://zshunj.cn

英语教学:浅谈新课标下英语教学法的实践与探索

 

陈力 王芳

长期以来,在我国中小学教育领域中奉行以知识传递为价值取向的教学观,致使一直以来课堂教学模式轻视甚至否认主体活动给予学生素质发展的真正价值。随着未来科技、经济的迅猛发展,知识经济时代的挑战,终身教育和学习化社会的到来,我们有必要重新审视现行的教学体系,确立学生主体活动在教学中的地位,在这种背景下实施新一轮的课程改革无疑给课堂教学改革提供了肥沃的土壤,从而将创新教学引入学校教育的主战场——课堂教学中,以使素质教育真正落到实处。

当我们认真学习《新课程标准》时,我们不难发现本次课程改革的重点之一是如何促进学生学习方式的变革。新课标所特别强调倡导的新的学习方式,是自主学习、合作学习、探究学习的学习方式,这也是实施新课程最为核心和最为关键的环节。通过特别强调倡导自主学习、合作学习和探究学习,就可以唤醒、开掘与提升学生的潜能,促进学生的自主发展;就有利于学生的全面成长,促进学生认知、情感、态度与技能等方面的和谐发展;就能在一定程度上满足学生的生活世界和学生的独特需要,促进学生有特色的发展,从而促进学生的终身学习的愿望和能力的形成,促进学生的可持续发展。

然而,在教学实践中,我们经常发现要真正地理解课改的理念并将此理念贯彻于教学实践中却是非常艰难,因此由于理念偏差而引起的教学手段失当或穿新鞋走老路的现象时有存在。正因如此,笔者在将近一年的教学教研实践中,不断加强理论学习,并坚持不断摸索,经常反思,以便适应新一轮的教学改革,本文是笔者就课程改革中对课堂教学的几点要求所作的思考和实践。

一、优化基础知识,培养综合能力

此次课程改革的重点是“要改变英语课堂过分重视语法和词汇知识的讲解与传授、忽视对学生实际语言运用能力的培养的倾向。” 但是,部分教师由于对《课标》中所提倡的任务型教学的意义理解不够准确,似乎正从以往只注重语言形式的应试教学变成只偏重语言意义的口语教学。他们误以为课堂中语言基础知识的教学不重要了,于是在课堂教学中淡化甚至完全忽略语言基础知识的教学。这其实是从一种极端(哑巴英语)走向另一个极端(文盲英语)的一种倾向。

然而,我们知道,语言知识是表情达意的必需手段,是语言学习的中心,是英语教学的立脚点。在现实生活中,我们都明白“巧妇难为无米之炊”,“没有砖石就无以建高楼大厦”的道理。那么,英语语言基础知识同样可以成为外语教学所要培植的运用语言能力之大树的根。语言学习的最终目的是培养交际能力,而要具备交际能力必须先获得语言能力。所以,语言基础知识是语言学习的基础,是形成综合语言运用能力的关键所在。离开了语言基础知识的传授,培养综合语言能力就只能是一句空话。因此,教师在教学中应当优化而不是淡化基础知识的教学。

优化基础知识教学就是要在教学中正确处理语言、语言意义和语言功能三者之间的关系。新课程标准提倡任务型的教学途径,要求教师能根据学习内容设计相应的交际活动,让学生在体验中掌握知识,学会运用语言。在传授语言基础知识时,教师应本着“体验、反思、归纳、总结、计划、巩固”的原则设计活动。其实,在每一单元的语法学习中,教材的设计充分体现了这一点。例如,在新教材SEFC Students Book IA P19中的语法:The Present Continuous Tense for Future Actions.按照这部分的要求 Read the following dialogueunderline the verbs that express future .让学生在活动中感知语言,接着让学生对感知的语言进行反思后再对该语言现象进行归纳和总结,绝大多数学生就会发现be doing 表示将来意义时,这一类动词往往是瞬间动词的这一特点,然后再设计新的活动来加深印象。例如通过设置情景:“Mr. Smith is going on a business trip in two days. Hes talking about his coming trip with his secretary”。 让学生做pairwork。下面是一组学生所编的对话:

A: Hello, Miss Green. I’m going to HK on business this weekend.

B: When are you going?

A: This Friday morning.

B: How are you going there, by air or by ship?

A: By air. Because it’s much faster.

B: Should I book the flight ticket and the hotel room in HK for you ?

A: Yes, please.

B: How are you getting to the airport ? Is anybody seeing you off ?

A: Yes. My son Jack is driving me to the airport. We are starting three hours ahead of time in case of the traffic jam.

B: Are you taking any documents with you?

A: No. But I’m taking my note-book with me.

B: How long are you staying there?

A: About a week. And I am to pay a visit to Mr. Smith during my stay in HK.

B: …….

这样,学生通过使用所学的语法项目编制对话,进行交谈,从而达到巩固所学语法知识的目的并能运用于实际生活中,为进一步培养综合能力奠定扎实的基础。

二、开展合作学习,培养社会实践技能

开展合作学习,培养学生合作品质是新课程改革的要求,也是当前各级各类学校普遍关注的热点。那么何为合作学习呢?美国明尼达大学“合作学习中心(Cooperative Learning center)约翰逊兄弟(D? W? Johnson &V R. T. Johnson)认为“合作学习就是在教学上运用小组,使学生共同活动,以最大程度地促进他们自己及他人的学习。”它是一种以学生为中心,以小组为形式,为了共同的学习目标共同学习、互相促进、共同提高的一种学习方式和教学策略,它在强调完成学习任务的同时,培养小组成员个人的合作能力,可以帮助学生通过共同工作来实践基本社会技能。从而培养团队精神和学生的主体意识,并能很好地促进学生之间的相互交流和共同发展。而新课程标准恰恰强调合作学习这一重要的学习方式。在英语教学中,合作学习有助于训练听说读写等各种技能;而且同学间的合作交流,有利于创设语言实践机会,营造轻松的课堂气氛,从而使一些学困生克服焦虑情绪。在目前大班授课依然作为一种主要授课形式的情况下,小组合作学习更是调动全体学生参与教学活动,提高课堂教学的浓度和密度之唯一出路。合作学习是开展外语教学的必要手段之一。

那么,在教学实践中,该如何有效地开展合作教学呢?根据不同的教学内容和要求,可以开展不同形式的合作学习方式,如小组游戏竞赛法、共学法、小组调查法、合作辩论法等等。

比如在阅读课中,小组合作阅读适合于研读课文,其活动步骤如下:

1.把课文内容分割成若干片段。如SEFC BOOK IB Unit 17中的Oprah Winfrey,本文属于一篇人物传记文章,我们可以把文章分为早期生活、主要成就、主要挫折和对社会的影响等若干部分。

2.把学生编成4人小组,每人选定一个内容进行学习。

3.然后负责相同内容的学生组成若干临时“专题组”共同学习讨论直至理解掌握。

4.“专题组”成员各自返回原组,轮流将自己负责的内容传递给本组成员。在此过程中,每个成员既有自我展示又要认真倾听他人的讲解。

5.组员之间相互检查。

6.教师予以适当评价。

这种方法在阅读教学中,具有分工明确、任务集中、时间短、收效快的特点。每个学生既有学会倾听又有学会反馈表达,这样有利于提高学生的责任意识和主动探究阅读的积极性。

小组讨论法和小组辩论法一般较适用于postreading这一部分,比如在学完Unit 17这一单元的Alone in Antarctica时,让学生讨论Do you admire Helen Thayer? Why? 学生往往会持各种观点,但总体可以整合为二种:或赞成或反对。 先让学生按46人小组形式进行3分钟左右的讨论,然后把班级分成二大组——正方和反方进行辩论,让学生充分陈述他们的观点。在实际教学中,正方认为:We admire Helen Thayer because she is a brave woman. Its unusual for a woman of her age to do things like that. Although she didnt stayed there as long as she had plannedyet her strong will , her perseverance and endurance really inspire us a lot . What she showed us is that participation is more important than the result. We young people do need her spirit, that is, one should have the courage to face difficulty and challenge in life. 而反方却说:I dont think she is a brave woman because she gave up instead of sticking to her plan. If she is a brave person, she will not give up so easily. Instead, she will continue till she succeeds even if she is in danger of losing her life. To a strong-minded person, shed rather lose her life than give up. 正方:No, youre wrong. I think Helen Thayer is worth admiring. In my opinion , she decided to return to her family not because she was afraid of danger or death but because she is a responsible person. She didn’t want her family to be in deep sorrow for her sudden disappearance from the world. She is not timid but honest. It shows that she is a person who can deal with the dangerous situation in a wise and proper way. There is a Chinese saying “识时务者为俊杰” .Since she is still alive, she still has the chance to be back to the Antarctic later. Her story tells us that when we set ourselves goals and try to achieve them, we may experience difficulties and setbacks. If so, the experiences form our feedback and we can use them to change our methods or ways to reach the goal. It’s very important for us to decide when to go on or give up. In her story, Helen Thayer has set us a good example, we should always remember to avoid meaningless death. 反方: No, its impossible for her to be back again. As we know, when she made the trip to the Antarctic, she was already an old lady of sixty years old. After the accident, she will be much sicker than before. No matter how she would try, she would never be able to be as strong as before. Besides, I think that she did so (made the trip to the Antarctic at such an old age) only because she wanted to make her known by others. That is but a way to show off. If she hadn’t given up and lost her life during the trip, her family would be sad for a period of time, but they would also have been proud of what she had done. If so, I would think she was admirable. …… 。双方唇枪舌剑,各不相让。尽管他们在表达方面不能达到尽善尽美,但陈述者能较好地运用I think, in my opinion, No, I dont think so, thats because, notbut …等已学的句式和短语如be worth doing, show off, be proud of , set sb. an example 等来表达自己的见解。这样使语言学习富有交流意义,符合语言学习和运用的规律。

小组调查法又是一项小组合作探究,讨论和设计相结合的学习活动。在课外调查资料和集中资料,在课堂上报告,展示和评价调查结果。例如:在学习BEFC BOOK IA Unit 7 P124 The Rescue of Abu Simbel后,要求学生查找与Three Gorges Dam 相关的信息,包括Situation, problems and advantages

1、把学生分成6人小组,每两人负责一个子课题。

2、课后开展调查,包括查阅资料和社会调查,通过图书馆、报刊杂志、网络等途径查找与话题相关的材料,或通过采访地理老师了解有关三峡的信息。

3、调查后,各组利用课余时间整理,集中资料以准备小组报告。

4、每组以报告的形式(文字和图片相结合)在班内展出,每组并派12名同学充当解说员,展示成果。

下面选出其中一份案例:

 CHANGJIANG THREE GORGE’S PROJECT

I. Question: Why is Changjiang Three-Gorge Dam Project required to be carried out ?

Situation: As is known to all, the 1998 Changjiang flood was a disaster to us Chinese, esp. to the people who live on the Changjiang River. It caused a great loss to people’s lives, safety and wealth. Many people lost their lives, wealth as well as their homes. In order to help reduce and even control the disastrous floods, with the heating debate among experts and the government, the Changjiang three-gorge dam is required to be constructed.

II. What are the problems if the Changjiang Three-gorge dam is to be built ?

Many experts think that although the Changjiang Three-gorge dam is likely to play an important part in reducing and controlling the flood , yet it will still cause many problems. Firstly, it will flood a large area of land, villages, towns, forests as well as many historic sites. It will cause a great loss to the economic development in the area. Secondly. it will cost a lot of money to make resettlements of the villages and towns as well as many of the historic sites. The entire project will require the relocation of more than one million people in Hubei and Sichuan provinces, so the government may have to spend several billion yuan in resettling them. Thirdly, if the historic sites are flooded by the great lake after the dam is built, it’s almost impossible to rebuilt what is exactly like before. Besides, even if some of the stone figures and so on can be moved, they may be damaged during the course of moving them. The last and most serious problem is the bad effects that the project will have on the eco-system. That is because when the area is flooded by the lake , many fields and forests together with the villages and towns will also be swallowed by the great waters of the lake. With the time going by, the plants will get rotten under the water, which will produce poisonous things and gases that will pollute the water, and thus it will do great harm to the fishes and other living creatures in the water. At the same time , when more and more people moved to the surrounding areas of the reservoir, the land will be too tensely populated, besides, all the people have to have the food to support themselves while the hilly land is not good to plant crops. Then the farmers may cut down the trees and destroy forests to get the arable land to grow crops on. Of course it will do greater harm to the environment.

[next] III. Advantages of the three-gorge dam projects:

1When the three-gorge dam project is completed, the great lake will achieve one of the goals of the projectelectricity production as well as flood management. It is said that the water level will be increased by 65 meters than before. As a result, the lake will hold over 12 billion cubic meters of water, which will meet the dam’s generating capacity of nearly 18,000 megawatts. It will be 50% more than the world’s largest existing hydro-station. The electricity produced by the dam will be enough to provide four large cities each of which has a population of one million. In this way, it is possible to solve the problem of the shortage of the natural resources. 

2The three-gorge dam will also improve the condition of navigation, and it is another great advantage of the project. As one of the largest dam in the world, the dam makes it possible for the fleet of million-ton ships to go through the dam at the same time, which helps Changjiang to be always in good condition for navigation.

3The main purpose of building the dam is to reduce the danger of flood of Jingjiang. That will certainly be the result. When the dam is completed, the possibility of flood happening in the area will reduce from 10% to 1% only.

4Although the farmers dont have as much land as before, the great lake will provide them enough space to raise fish, so the farmers will be able to make a good living by farming fish.

5The dam will also add to the natural beauty with the splendid lake, and it will still attract as many as or even more tourists to come to visit the place. In a way it helps to develop the economy of the area.

Chief editor: Chuck Wu.

Picture editor: Tom Van

Information by Beckham Wang & Alexander Fang

5、采用各组互相打分和老师综合评分的办法,评选出最佳调查组(可设多项奖项),最终评出了最佳图片奖—Catherine小组、信息最全奖—Emily小组、最佳报告奖--Chuck小组、最佳编辑—Johnson, Chuck, Stephanie, Mike等。

但是,合作学习实施起来有一定的难度,有时效果也不尽人意。在具体的操作过程中,会出现各小组间活动不平衡,有些学生会缺乏主动性,依赖性强,参与意识差,活动难以持久等问题,这就需要我们教师在实施合作教学过程中,要善于营造愉快的合作学习环境,在一开始采用游戏竞赛法、直观教学法、参观体验等手段,逐渐培养学生在合作中的参与意识。同时,要明确任务和责任制,让每位学生承担相应的学习任务,让每位同学都“有活干、不失业”。在此过程中,教师应随时观察学情、监控活动过程,指导合作技巧,调控学习任务,督促学生完成任务。这样促使大家积极参与,并能及时分享成功的快乐。再者,活动的主题要紧扣教学内容;并能及时改变活动方式及空间、时间的变换,力求活动有新意。灵活性是合作学习的润滑剂,让学生能经常感觉到活动的新鲜有趣,从而能坚持下去。当然,外语教学不可能只采用某一种教学方法。教师应根据不同的课型和内容有选择地设计合作活动,而不一定要每节课都用这种方法。

合作学习的最大意义在于它创造性地应用互动理论。合作学习的互动不是传统意义上教师传递给学生的单向型活动,或师生之间交流的双向型互动,它强调师生之间、生生之间的多边互动,这为学生提供了充足的交流机会。其次合作学习不仅可以增加交流的量,而且可以提高学生运用英语的质,促进语言的习得,从而增强学习者的自尊心和自信心。另外,合作学习也有利于师生之间的沟通,建立亲密的师生关系。所以合作学生对外语教育有着非常积极的意义。

三、创设英语活动教学,培养探究意识

长期以来,我们习惯于认为学生的任务是在教师帮助下学习并掌握书本知识,认识活动的目的主要是掌握而不是发现“真理”,如果教学中有一些探索活动,往往都是在老师的指导甚至控制下进行,所以只能算是一种体验,而并非实践,那样就否认了学生的自主发现,探索和认知事物的能力。久而久之,学生就处于被动消极的境地,于是难以真正地确立学生在教学认识活动中的主体地位,最终难以实现学生的主动发展。值得欣慰的是,新课程标准为学生的探究实践能力的培养提供了广阔的空间和舞台,为活动教学提供了极好的素材。

活动教学强调探究,强调学生的活动,借助活动来真正确立学生在教学过程中的主体性,这在客观上保证了学生主体作用的发挥;塑造和构建了学习的意义。在这种情形下,学生才可以成为自主的行动者而不是老师的追随者,通过他们的探究、体验活动,学习才具有了主动探索的意义,这样才有利于独立思考能力和创新思维能力的培养。英语教学中的活动教学除了我在合作教学中提到过的社会调查活动之外,还有许多如小品创作、表演活动、记者招待会模拟活动、走进自然实践活动等。例如在学习了SEFC BOOKIB Unit 15 The Necklace之后,让学生自己组队自定主题编写剧本并要求他们把自己的剧本表演出来。由于这项活动较有挑战性而富情趣,学生的参与热情很高,绝大部分学生所编的剧本语言较精炼,且不乏机智幽默之辞,在表演过程中也能较好地演绎其中的所蕴藏的丰富情感,且能够放得开,不必担心是否会误解编写者的意图,所以这次活动就相当成功。通过这种方式,可以把学生从简单的背诵台词的僵硬表演中解放出来。又如在学完Unit 18 New Zealand 之后,利用舟山地处海岛的优势,借春游的机会,让学生游历了几处海边景点,让他们真正地体验What sports can be done on the beach/ by the seaside? 女孩子在沙滩上作画,拾贝壳、拾海螺、看海景;男孩子参加了rock climbing 活动,海边探险,沙滩足球赛等富有情绪的游戏。返校后让学生总结 What other sports do people do on an island / by the seaside besides those mentioned in our text book? 学生的在描述的过程中则有了更多的灵性。通过类似上述的活动,我们就可以让学生进行把的实际操作和内部的思维操作相结合、相作用的实践。把主动经验和探索活动发现有机的结合起来,以实现知识的深化。当然,我们并没必要提倡事必躬亲,但是我们应该意识到,不同的活动方式和活动内容,会常给学生不同的内心体验。如在人文性活动中(剧本编写表演等),他们经历着对于美丑的感受,积累着对于生活的理解与反思。在发现探究活动(海边漫步)中需要运用直觉、幻想、想象等。就学生的发展而言,他们在活动中所获得的感受,体验的成功和失败以及对于问题的解决,是更具有实质性意义的学习成果。可以说,正是活动提供了一条有效培养学生非理性精神的理想途径,正是活动给予了学生体验生命成长意义,增加健全人格的机会。

通过活动教学,我们可以改变课堂等于教室及学习资源仅限于书本的观念,随时从学生熟悉的现代文化生活和社会实际中选取为学生关注的话题。将沸腾的、变幻的生活及时纳入课堂中。让知识回归生活,让学生意识到自己是生活在一个一切都充满知识、蕴含知识的世界中。总之,要让生活走进课堂,将课堂引向生活,要多走向课外、户外。因为生活的一切时间和空间都来自学习的课堂。

四、采用探究式课堂教学,培养学生的自主学习能力。

新课程在目标的设置上也特别重视发展学生的智力和培养学生的学习自我管理的能力,促进学生有特色的发展。作为教师在教学的同时,必须关注学生的终身学习的愿望和能力的形成,促进学生的可持续发展。自主学习是相对于被动学习而言,是高质量的学习方式。

我们的教学理念中经常提倡“授人以鱼不如授之以渔”是指让学生学会自我学习和继续学习的能力。我国教育家叶圣陶先生也主张培养学生独立思考和解决问题的能力,提出了“教是为了不教”的精粹名言。所以我们的教学并非是单纯地教给学生多少知识,而是让学生学会自主学习,否则,我们不能说这是好的教学,更谈不上是成功的教学。

根据国外学者的研究成果,自主学习概括地说,就是“自我导向、自我激励,自我监控”的学习。这里所说的自主学习是指在教学条件下的学生高品质的学习。所有的能有效地促进学生发展的学习,都一定是自主学习。说到自主学习,就不得不提到探究性学习,因为只有一个具有探究精神的人才会积极地参与到学习过程中,才会敢于迎接学习过程中的各种挑战,去进行不断地尝试。从教学的角度来看,采用探究性课堂教学这种教学活动形式符合教学改革的实际,能使班级焕发出生机勃勃的活力和效力,同时也能促使教师在探究中不断完善。

所谓探究式课堂教学,就是以探究为主的教学。具体说它是指教学过程是在教师的启发诱导下,以学生独立自主学习和合作讨论为前提,以现行教材为基本探究内容,以学生周围世界和生活实际为参照对象,为学生根据充分自由表达、质疑、探究讨论问题的机会,让学生通过个人、小组、集体等多种解难释疑尝试活动,将自己所学知识应用于解决实际问题的一种教学形式。探究式课堂教学特别重视开发学生的智力、发展学生的创造思维,培养自学能力,力图通过自我探究引导学生学会学习和掌握科学方法,为终身学习和工作奠定基础。在具体的实施探究式教学手段的过程中,教师应担当导师的作用充分调动他们的积极性,同时还要为学生的学习设置探究的情景。例如:在阅读SEFC SBIA Unit 4 Reading -The Rescue 时,采用激趣引题的方法进行课堂导入,先设疑让学生猜测What is the rescue about? 学生们根据自己的生活经验提出了各自的观点,诸如A pet rescues its owner /people rescue the historic sites / rescue an old man / rescue a kidnapped child from the kidnappers / rescue human beings from outer space creatures / rescue the rare animals 等等,众说纷纭。然后让学生看课文图片,判断what is the rescue about in the text ?大部分同学能迅速得到线索-The rescue from a flood. 然后针对下一个问题,If you have to rescue someone whos trapped in the flood , what will you do to rescue him/ her? 进行合作探究等他们相互讨论后,给出不同的建议:If I have to rescue someone trapped in the floodI will hire a boat and take him to a safe place. If I have to do this, I will throw him a life jacket so that he wont get drowned. Then I will call someone else such as the policemen for further help. If I have to do this in such a situation, I will throw him something that can float, I think it may take him to a safe place and he’ll be saved. If I have to save a person from a flood, I’d like to hire a helicopter if possible. then I’ll be able to take him away from the flood. Once I succeed in doing so. I’ll also take him to the nearest hospital for the medical examination. If he’s sick and needs to stay in hospital, I’ll attend to him or her until he /she’s completely recovered.

从学生的回答当中,我们可以看到,他们的建议不仅体现了必要的营救常识,而且充分地体现了他们的人文关怀和乐于助人于危险之中的美德。然后让学生快速阅读文章who rescued the two persons in the story? How? 并让学生弄清In what order in the story narrated? What phrases or sentences does the writer use to describe that the flood is disastrous? Find them out! 最后让学生总结对于故事性文章的写作应如何把握,结构如何安排,如何用词使文章更显生动等等。经过认真地讨论之后,学生认为这篇文章围绕an unforgettable experience 这一主题,从洪水如何泛滥入手,重点描写了主人公如何从中解救的过程,用地点的变化来带出不同时段不同的情感体验。为了突出洪水的凶猛,作者运用了许多形象生动的描写和比喻,如①She heard a noise, which grew to a terrible roar. There she saw a wall of water. The next moment the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden. The water moved up like a sea. 通过上述总结,使学生对于故事性文章的写作技巧有了较好的了解,并让学生在实际写作过程中加以体验,最终转化成他们自己一种的技能,做到了任务型教学所倡导的“Learning by doing ,learning by using ”。 有时,我们也不妨尝试让学生根据阅读材料自己来设计问题,提出问题,让大家明白他想从阅读中获取什么信息,然后根据学生提出的问题有选择地让学生予以讨论以得出答案。另外,我们前面讲到的教学活动中其实就融入了很多的实践探究成份。

总之,在探究式教学过程中,教师尽量通过提问的方式让学生感受和领悟学习策略及学习方法,同时探究学习也是开发学生创造思维和后续学习的有利时机,为今后培养创造型人才奠定了一定的基础。

 

《新课程标准》的颁布实施对教师和学生都是提出了新的要求,它要求我们教研员与一线教师尽快地转变教学理念、实现角色转换,及时地改变课堂教学组织形式,注重科学探究的教学;转变学生的学习方式,关注学生的学习体验,培养学生对这门课的兴趣,把学习过程中的发现、探究、研究等认识活动凸显出来,使学习过程更多地成为学生发现问题、提出问题、解决问题的过程。这也是教给学生方法论——学科方法论的过程,即培养学生的合作学习,引导学生进行探究学习,最终实现自主学。这无疑要求教师在教学实践中,要改善自己的知识结构,改变自己,在教学中不断探究,在实践探究中学习,在实践探究中提高,改变“自我中心”实现“自我发展” ,这也是笔者今后需要不断努力的方向。只有如此,我们才能步入“教”与“学”互促互动的良性循环轨道,使学生学有所成,让自己教有所得。在真正意义上实现课堂教学

参考文献:

Wolf, D. P. 1987 “ The art of Questioning”. Institute for Inquiry. <http://www. exploratorium.edu / IFI /resources/ classroom, htm1>

Ellis, R. The study of second Language Acquisition Oxford     Oxford University Press, 1994

教育部:《全日制义务教育普通高级中学英语课程标准》,北京师范出版社2001

浙江省教育科学研究院:《走进新课程》(理论篇),200212

张正东:“语言知识是外语教学的立脚点”,《中国外语教与学》,2003年第1,

《外语教育学》 北京科学出版社1999.1

黄振远:论合作学习的定位,实施与意义 《教学研究》2004年第1

胡春洞、王才仁:《英语教学交际论》 南宁:广西教育出版社 19985


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